are always warmly welcome -

07 March 2007

CLIWOC: A climatological [and trade routes'] database for the world's oceans 1750-1854

KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute), De Bilt, Netherlands

A public-access database of georeferenced positions and meteorological data collected from over 280,000 historical observations in the logbooks of Spanish, Dutch and English sailing ships engaged in trade, war, and exploration voyages across the Pacific, Atlantic, and the Indian Ocean from 1750 till 1854.

Site contents:
* CLIWOC project history;

* Metadata - CLIWOC Dutch individual ships position plots
(Pre-1750 Ships: Africa (1677), Freden (1748-1749), Maarseveen (1662-1663), Wesel (1699), [...]
1750-1799 Ships: Admiraal de Ruyter, Africaensche Galey, Agatha, Akerendam, [...]
1800-1854 Ships: Abel Tasman, Adder, Admiraal Evertsen, Admiraal Jan Evertsen [...]);

* Metadata - CLIWOC English individual ships position plots
(Ships: Acasta Active(1), Active(2), Active(3), Adamant, Admiral Pocock, [...] Worcester, Yarmouth, York, Yorke);

* Metadata - CLIWOC Spanish individual ships position plots
(Ships: Activo, El, Aguila, El, Aigle, Le, Aimable Marie Anne, L', Ambition, L', Amphitrite, L', Ana, Santa, [...], Vicente, San, Vicomte de Choiseuil, Le, Viviana, Zephir, Le)

* Metadata - CLIWOC ship positions maps and graphs
(1750-1759, 1760-1769, 1770-1779, 1780-1789, 1790-1799, 1800-1809, 1810-1819, 1820-1829, 1830-1839, 1840-1850, 1750-1850 (b/w), 1750-1850 (colour));

* CLIWOC Meteorological data 1662-1855 (Wind observations - [for all 12 month of the year], Air Temperature (C) per 5x5 degrees [for all 12 month of the year & for the whole period]);

* CLIWOC database:
Release 1.1 (23 January 2004) and
Release 1.5 (15 April 2004) [freely downloadable zipped file, 12.7 MB, Complete version in IMMA-format, period covers 1662-1855; contains 280,280 records, compatible with MS-DOS environment (each record ends with the combination CR/LF). Also available: Complete Database in Microsoft Access 2000 and Complete Database in Microsoft Access 97. - ed.];

* CLIWOC Publications/Literature/Media;

* Links
(CLIWOC related links,
VOC and EIC links: VOC Kennis Centrum, VOC-links, VOC-Glossarium, Bataviawerf (Batavia Yard), Tanap, VOC Site, De VOC. Scheepvaart tussen Nederland en Azie (1595-1795),
Other links)

Please note that the above details were correct on the day of their publication. To suggest an update, please email the site's editor at

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06 March 2007

Sustaining the Empire: War, the Navy and the Contractor State
What did the sailors eat?
National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, UK

The official WEEKLY scale of provisions to be supplied was:

Biscuits 7 lb/person
Beer 7 Gallons
Beef 4 lb
Pork 2 lb
Pease 2 Pint
Oatmeal 3 Pint
Butter 6 oz
Cheese 12 oz
"... various substitutes could be issued when any of the main foods were not available.  For example, chickpeas or lentils were issued in place of pease in the eastern Mediterranean or in India; sugar could be used instead of oatmeal, butter or cheese, and outside home waters the daily gallon of beer was replaced by a pint of wine or half a pint of spirits. Each man was also allowed half a pint of vinegar a week."

Please note that the above details were correct on the day this post was published. To suggest an update, please email the site's editor at

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Roman Roads in the Mediterranean
The Roman Roads
This site is the outcome of a partnership between fifteen regions of Europe, France, Italy, Spain and Greece which began in 1998, within the framework of THE EUROPEAN INTERREG MEDOCC PROJECT.
VIAE LUSITANORUM in Portugal and especially through The Algarve including the sites of Baesuris, Balsa, Ossonoba (Faro), Milreu, Cerro da Vila, Lacobriga.

in Catalonia,
and Valencia
and the Ruta Betica Romana in Andalousia

VIA DOMITIA in Languedoc-Roussillon where you can find the route of the roman road, especially around Beaucaire, Nimes, Pont du Gard, Ambrussum (Lunel), Pinet et Loupian, Béziers and Ensérune, Narbonne and across the Pyrenees.

VIA DOMITIA in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region with the sites of Tarascon, Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, Cavaillon, Apt, Céreste, Lurs and Ganagobie, Sisteron and the Montgenèvre mountain pass along the route of the Via Domitia.

VIA CORSICA in Corsica


ROAD OF GAUL in the Aosta valley especially the Pont d'Ael, a dramatic natural site noted for the aqueduct-bridge.

VIA FLAMINIA in Umbria (text only in Italian)


VIA EGNATIA in West Macedonia and the sites of Florina, Petres Amyntaion, Spilia-Pyrgoi and Aiani.

VIA EGNATIA in East Macedonia -Thrace you can follow the Via Egnatia (text only in Greek)to Advira, Amphipolis, Anastasioupolis, Kavala, Maroneia, Makri, Filipoi, Mesemvira.

Please note that the above details were correct on the day this post was published. To suggest an update, please email the site's editor at

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