are always warmly welcome -

31 October 2007

Il Cammino di Assisi - A Pilgrim Route to Assisi

Pilgrim Route to Assisi

0. Rifugio Benedetta Bianchi Porro di Dovadola
1. Dovadola - Marzanella
2. Marzanella - Cà Ridolla (Premilcuore)
3. Cà Ridolla (Premilcuore) - Corniolo
4. Corniolo - Camaldoli
5. Camaldoli - Biforco
6. Biforco - Verna
7. Verna - Caprese Michelangelo
8. Caprese Michelangelo - Sansepolcro
8.bis Caprese Michelangelo - Pieve S. Stefano
9. Sansepolcro - Valdimonte
10 Valdimonte - Città di Castello
11 Città di Castello - Pietralunga
12 Pietralunga - Gubbio
13 Gubbio - Valfabbrica
14 Valfabbrica - Assisi

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29 October 2007

The Tea Clippers and their sea routes

The Tea Clippers - An account of the China Tea Trade and of some of the British Sailing Ships engaged in it from 1849 to 1869

by David R. McGregor

With drawings by the Author
London: Percival Marshall & Co., LTD.

[...] There were several routes that could be followed by ships leaving or approaching China, the chief deciding factor on where the ship was to enter or leave the China Sea being the time of year, though the vessel's capabilities had also to be taken into account. Ships built specially for the China trade on fine lines would always lay a course right down the China Sea when homeward-bound, regardless of the season, unless they had a timid or inexperienced captain, or else met with strong south-westerly winds immediately they left, say, Foochow, in which case they would probably stand out into the Pacific go down the eastern coast of Formosa and if the wind was still south/westerly continue down the east side of the Phillipines and then via Gillolo Strait, Pitt Passage, and Ombai Strait, into the Indian Ocean past the island of Timor. Such a route was termed the Eastern passage. Sir Lancelot under Richard Robinson did this in 1867, and only took 99 days on the homeward passage. Other masters might have occupied a week or more extra spent in beating down the China Sea against the south-westerlies. With a shift of wind to the south or south-east ships could get ahead, but perhaps some masters prided themselves in never being beaten by the China Sea passage. Many ships used to make for the coast of Cochin China since land breezes were experienced there at night which enabled the ship to make good progress south. A third homeward route was down the west coast of Luzon and then into the Sulu Sea past Mindoro and from there into the Celebes Sea, Strait of Macassar and thence into the Indian Ocean through Lombok Strait. Ships going down the China Sea would pass into the Indian Ocean by way of Sunda Strait, separating Sumatra from Java, calling at Anjer on the way. The sea between Borneo and Sumatra was studded with islands, there being three passages known as Banka, Gaspar and Carimata Straits. The first was frequently used, though it would appear to be a tortuous and hazardous channel.

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26 October 2007

Prehistoric dispersal routes in South Asia

Julie S. Field, Michael D. Petraglia and Marta Mirazón Lahr. 2007. The southern dispersal hypothesis and the South Asian archaeological record: Examination of dispersal routes through GIS analysis.
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology
Volume 26, Issue 1, March 2007, Pages 88-108

This research advances a model for coastal-based dispersals into South Asia during oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 4. A series of GIS-based analyses are included that assess the potential for expansions into the interior of South Asia, and these results are compared with known archaeological signatures from that time period. The results suggest that modern Homo sapiens could have traversed both the interior and coastlines using a number of routes, and colonized South Asia relatively rapidly. Use of these routes also implies a scenario in which modern H. sapiens, by either increased population growth or competitive ability, may have replaced indigenous South Asian hominin populations.

Keywords: South Asia; Human dispersals; Coastal routes; GIS; Modeling

Article Outline
Paleoenvironmental reconstruction
A GIS-based model of dispersals across South Asia
Methodology I: friction surface
Methodology II: least cost routes
Result of the direct routes analysis
Result of wandering routes analysis
Proposed routes, colonization issues, and the archaeological record of South Asia

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The Frankincense Route: A proposed cultural itinerary for the Middle East.

Shackley, Myra. 2001.The Frankincense Route: A proposed cultural itinerary for the Middle East.

A paper from the Australia ICOMOS
Making Tracks conference,
Alice Springs, May 2001

...ancient frankincense routes requires the utilisation of both historical and archaeological...variations of the routes were used at different...archaeologically or from historical sources or (more...commercial cultural routes include the salt...

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The Origins of Spatial Interaction

Keller, Wolfgang & Shiue, Carol Hua, 2003.
"The Origins of Spatial Interaction,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
4138, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

18th century china; coastal transport; geography; R40; river transport; spatial autocorrelation; spatial econometrics; trade; transport costs

Geography shapes economic outcomes in a major way. This Paper uses spatial empirical methods to detect and analyse trade patterns in a historical dataset on Chinese rice prices. Our results suggest that spatial features were important for the expansion of interregional trade. Geography dictates, first, over what distances trade was possible in different regions, because the costs of ship transport were considerably below those for land transport. Spatial features also influence the direction in which a trading network is expanding. Moreover, our analysis captures the impact of new trade routes both within and outside the trading areas. We also discuss the long-run implications this might have.

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Trade routes and mines in N Vietnam, c. 1770

Extracts from a historical book by Le Quy Don, first published in the mid 1700's
"Kien van tieu luc" [Small Collection of Things Seen and Heard], Hanoi: Su Hoc Press, 1962.

The Black River has 83 famous rapids and falls with the Van Bo is the most dangerous.

Hung Hoa province

chau Mai-Son

Chau Mai-Son: 3 dong, produce copper and shi2 lu4 (thach luc). Chinese mined here and paid tax.
chau Son-la

p.364: Chau Son-la: there was a gold mine of Yet-ong in Dong Hieu-te, produced gold. Chinese opened the mine here and paid tax.
chau Chieu-tan

p.365: Chau Chieu-tan, there is a gold mine in Muong Khoa, village Nguyen Than, with a tax of 5 lang (10 quan) paid to the officer. They also had to pay taxes at two places [as Lai Chau], one in the local place and the other in Kien Thuy county in China. People have nowhere to complain. Muong trinh - Dien chien are on the edges of Chieu tan and Quang lang (Guang Ling district), there is a trade route to the countries of Lao-Lung and Bon Man, many Chinese are busy bringing out elephant tusks, rhinoceros horn, pilose antler and cinnamon.

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22 October 2007

Journey of Mankind - The Peopling of the World - Genetic Map

The Bradshaw Foundation, in association with Stephen Oppenheimer, presents a virtual global journey of modern man over the last 160,000 years. The map will show for the first time the interaction of migration and climate over this period. We are the descendants of a few small groups of tropical Africans who united in the face of adversity, not only to the point of survival but to the development of a sophisticated social interaction and culture expressed through many forms. Based on a synthesis of the mtDNA and Y chromosome evidence with archaeology, climatology and fossil study, Stephen Oppenheimer has tracked the routes and timing of migration, placing it in context with ancient rock art around the world.

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21 October 2007

Journal : Purabhilekh-Puratatva, Goa, India

Date: 21 Oct 2007 08: 00: 01 -0000
From: "Bireshwar Banerjee" (

Journal : Purabhilekh-Puratatva
Editor: Dr. P. P. Shorodkar. A journal published by Directorate of Archives, Archaeology & Museum, Panaji, Goa.

Vol-1: Number-1: July-Dec: 1983: Luso-British relations (Documents) 1793-1794, Portuguese Palaeography, British Cemetery in Goa, by Dr. P. P. Shirodkar, Old Inscription Discovered. Etc. Panaji, Goa, 1983, Royal Size, pp 145, with plates.

Vol-2: Number-1: Jan-June: 1984: (Socio-religious impact on Portuguese on Karnataka, by Dr. B. S. Sastry, Portuguese horse tradeby, the concept of trade and commerce during Portuguese regime, Portuguese paleography, Luso-British relations (documents) Modi-Marathi Documents, Ganesh festivals in Goa of the past, by Carmo Azevedo, etc. Pp 130, with tables, many illustrations. Plates.

Vol-2: Number-2: July-Dec: 1984: (Luso-British relations documents, Portuguese paleography, King of Tanur & the Portuguese, A 17th Century Portuguese proconsul,
Hugli under Portuguese prior to its destruction by Shah Jehan, by A. P. Fernandes, The Immaculate conception church in Panjim, by Dr. Carmo Azevedo, etc. royal size. pp 148, with illustrations.

Vol-3: No: 1, Jan-June: 1985: (Two documents on the voyage of the Galleon Sao Pantaleao in the Carreira Da India, 1592-93, by C. R. Boxer. , Daman Port & Shipyards: 1800-1875, by Carlos Xavier, Slavery in Coastal India: with reference to Goa, Daman & Diu, Portuguese Paleography, Luso British Relations (documents), Museum at Old Goa-a glimpse, some archaeological discoveries in Due, by Narayan Vyas, new notes, book reviews, etc. pp 150, with plates,

Vol-4: No: 1, Jan-June: 1986; (Goa Inquisition-a new light on first 100 years (1561-1660). Luso-British Relations, (documents), A Rare Sculpture of Vishnu in Old Goa-Musuem, By Dr, P. R. K. Prasad, Tambi Surla Temple, etc, book revews, new notes, local History seminar, etc. pp 114, with many plates, plans, churches photographs, rebopund. royal size.

Vol-4: No: 2: July-Dec: 1986: (Indian Shipping & Maritime power of the Portuguese in 17th & 18th centuries, by Dr. S. K. Mathew, CLH Blitzkrieg in Mormugao Harbour: World War II, Luso British Relations, Portuguese paleography, historic port of TereKhol, reis magos church of Verem, Rare Find of Images, etc. pp 110, with plates, tables,

Vol-5: No: 1: Jan-June: 1987: (Goa: Past & Present. By K. S. Mathew, State Reforms in 17th Century Goa, World War II Historic Exchange of POWs in Mormugao, Lusu British Relations, Portuguese Paleography, Modi Marathi Documents, Conception Church Of Moira, Book Reviews, new Notes) Royal Size, pp 101, with illustrations.

Vol-5: No: 2: July-Dec: 1987 Nobility in Gujarat Sultanate & Portuguese during 16th Century, by Prof: K. S. Mathew, Mateus de Castro -A Rebel, by Dr. P. Kamat, Gentilism of Asia ! through Portuguse eyes, by Dr. P. P. Shirodkar, Piedade! Church at Divar, Archives week Exhibition Photographic Exhibition, etc. pp 108, with plates, rebound.

Vol-6: Number-2: July-Dec: 1988: (Cochin & Maritime Trade of India During 16th Century, A India Revolta, Portuguese Paleography, Gentilism of Asia, Through Portuguese Eyes, Archives Week Ehibition, etc. pp 108, with plates. Rebound.

Vol-7: No: 1: Jan-June: 1989: Socio-Economic History of Medieval S. India & Portuguese Historians, Indian Trade in 16th Century: French Challenge to Portuguese, A light on the Portuguese Document in code language, Portuguese paleography, modi-marathi documents, !Mae De Deus! Church of Saligao, Mother Goddess: A great Leap From Curdi to Verna, etc. pp 100, with plates,

Vol-7: No: 2: July-Dec: 1989: Luso-Chinese ties vis-a-vis Macau & its Archives, by Isau Santos, Transport system of Goa in the Past, Foral de Salcete , Potuguese Paleography, Modi-Maratha Documents, The Cathedral See, etc, Book Reviews, notes & New, pp 114, with many plates, figures.

Vol-8: No: 1: Jan-June: 1990: Special Issue India & Brazil: (Brazil's colonial administration as reflected in Goa Archives, At the Dusk of the Second Empire: Goa-Brazil Commercial Links: 1770-1826, by Celsa Pinto, Colonial Brazil and Goa: Visible and Invisible links, Goa and Brazil : Economic Ties (1700-1750 A. D. by Dr. B. S. Sastry, A Brazilian consular agent in Goa 19th Century, Indo-Brazilian Source material in Goa Historical Survey) royal size. pp 135, with many plates, photographs,

Vol-8: No: 2: July-Dec: 1990: (China & Portugal centuries old Interaction, by Dr. P. P. Shirodkar, Kannada document preserved in Goa Archives, Portuguese Paleography,
Modi-Marathi Documents, Holy Church & Convent of Franciscans, Preservation Conser-vation of Manuscripts & Books) etc. Book Reviews, news & Notes, Royal Size.
Pp 108, with plates.

Vol-9: No: 1, Jan-June: 1991: (Trade & Navigation in the Indian Ocean under the Portuguese & Akbar, Reconstruction of Saptakotishwar Temples by Shivaji-a new light, The church of clovale, preservation of old textiles, modi maratha documents, list of scholars) royal size, pp 110, with plates.

Vol-9: No: 2: July-Dec: 1991: Pulical based shipping & Trade (A. D. 1500-1530) Foral de Salcete, Portuguese paleography, modi-marathi documents, the extinct fortress of Gaspar Dias, conservation of wooden art objects, statement on scholars (1987-90) etc. royal size, pp 80, with tables, maps, plates,

Vol-10: No: 1: Jan-June: 1992: (Indian & Chinese control of the Portuguese eastern Empire (1770-1850), by Rudy Bauss. Socio-cultural interaction : Goas in Mozambique, Sao Paulo Dos Arcoss, etc. pp 108, vi, with plates, photographs.

Vol-10: No: 2: July-Dec: 1992: (Portuguese Commercial; enterprise at the port of Kilakkarai & establishment of trading settlement at Vedalai on Tamilnadu Coast, Commerces & Capitalism Model for Dutch in Malabar, Modi-Marathi Documents, Portuguese Palaeography, Foral De Salcete, Christians & Spices in Monsoon Asia, etc) pp 81, with plates,

New Series:
Volume -1: No: 2: July-Dec: 2000: Editor: Dr. S. K. Mhamai, (Portuguese presence in Mozambique during colonial era, conservation of Reis Magos Church: A Report, Portuguese paleography, other important activites, new & notes, etc. ) pp 92, with plates, colour photographs.

Vol-2: No: 1: Jan-June: 2001: (Indo-Portuguese Relations: Problems & Prospects, by Dr. B. Krishnamurthy, Indo-Portuguese Commerce & the Tesouraria Geral De Goa (1780-1840), study of watermarks on old documents in Goaarchives, Portuguese Paleography, etc. pp 70, with colour plates.

Vol-2: No: 2: July-Dec: 2001: (Syncretic Shati Pitha-the image of the Divine feminine as Santeri-Shantadurga-Saibin in Goa, by Pratima Kamal, The Paintings of Velha Goa 1538-1700, the formation of an Indo-European Legacy, Foral De Salcete, Portuguese Paleography, Marathi Documents, Few Observations on Cochin Museum Copper Plate, Pp 112, letters, colour plates.

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15 October 2007

Selected references to travel, trade, and trade-routes in the Middle East

(Excerpted from Mike Zimmerman's bibliography on the Near East)

Mike Zimmerman, The Joukowsky Institute Workplace , Brown University, Providence, RI, US

(1986). Le Voie Royale - 9000 Ans d'Art au Royaume de Jordanie: Musée du Luxembourg 26 Novembre 1986 - 25 Janvier 1987. Paris, Association Française d'Action Artistique.
(1995). Trade, Contact, and the Movement of Peoples in the Eastern Mediterranean: Studies in Honour of J. Basil Hennessy. Sydney.
(1997). Der Königsweg: 9000 Jahre Kunst und Kultur in Jordanien und Palästina: Exhibition Cologne. Schallaburg/Munich.
Benzinger, I. (1912). Palestine et Syrie, routes principales à travers la Mésopotamie et la Babylonie, l'île de Chypre: Manuel du voyageur. Leipzig/Paris.
Borstad, K. A. (2000). Ancient Roads in the Madaba Plains of Transjordan: Research from a Geographic Perspective. Tuscon, AZ, University of Arizona.
Bruce, J. (1812). Travels Between the Years 1765 and 1773, Through Parts of Africa, Syria, Egypt, and Arabia into Abyssinia, To Discover the Source of the Nile. London.
Brünnow, R. E. v. D., A. (1905). Die Provincia Arabia, Vol. 1: Die Romerstraße von Madeba uber Petra und Odruh bis el-'Akaba. Strassburg, Trubner.
Brünnow, R. E. v. D., A. (1905). Die Provincia Arabia, Vol. 2: Der außere Limes und die Romerstraßen. Strassburg, Trubner.
Buckingham, J. S. (1821). Travels in Palestine through the Countries of Bashan and Gilead, East of the River Jordan, 1816. London.
Bulliet, R. (1975). The Camel and the Wheel. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
Burckhardt, J. (1822). Travels in Syria and the Holy Land. London, Palestine Exploration Fund.
Coon, C. (1958). Caravan: the Story of the Middle East. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Dorsey, D. A. (1991). The Roads and Highways of Ancient Israel. Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press.
Doughty, C. M. (1888/1979). Travels in Arabia Deserta. New York, Dover Publications.
Graham, C. C. (1858). "Explorations in the Desert East of the Hauran and in the Ancient Land of Bashan." Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 28: 226-263.
Grant, C. P. (1937). The Syrian Desert: Caravans, Travel and Exploration.
Groom, N. (1981). Frankincense and Myrrh: A Study of the Arabian Incense Trade. London.
Irby, C. L. M., J. (1823). Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria and Asia Minor during the Years 1817 and 1818. London.
Irby, C. L. M., J. (1844). Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria and the Holy Land, Including a Journey Round the Dead Sea, and Through the Country East of the Jordan. London.
Karmon, Y. (1961). "Geographical Influences on the Historical Routes in the Sharon Plain." PEQ 93: 43-60.
MacDonald, M. C. A. (1990). "Camel Hunting or Camel Raiding?" Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 1: 24-28.
MacDonald, M. C. A. (1997). Trade Routes and Trade Goods at the Northern End of the ‘Incense Road’ in the First Millenium B.C. Profumi d’Arabia. Atti del convegno. Rome: 333-49.
Mallon, A. (1924). "Voyage d'exploration au sud-est de la Mer Morte." Biblica 5: 413-455.McGarvey, J. W. (1981). Lands of the Bible: A Geographical and Topographical Description of Palestine, with Letters of Travel in Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor and Greece. Philadelphia, PA.
Merrill, S. (1881). East of the Jordan: A Record of Travel and Observation in the Countries of Moab, Gilead and Bashan. London.
Meryon, C. L. (1983). Travels of Lady Hester Stanhope III. London.
Phillips, W. (1955). Qataban and Sheba: Exploring the Ancient Kingdoms on the Biblical Spice Routes of Arabia. New York.
Potts, D. T. (1988). Trans-Arabian Routes of the Pre-Islamic Period. L'Arabie et ses Mer Bordières, Vol. I: Itinéraires et Voisinages, Séminaire de Recherche 1985-1986. J.-F. Salles. Lyon: 127-162.
Potts, D. T. (1992-93). "Rethinking Some Aspects of Trade in the Arabian Gulf." World Archaeology 24: 423-40.
Randolph, J. (1928). "Desert Routes between Baghdad and the Mediterranean." BASOR 31: 17-20.
Renfrew, C. C., J.R.; Dixon, J.E. (1973). Obsidian and Trade in the Near East. In Search of Man: Readings in Archaeology. E. L. Green. Boston, MA, Little, Brown & Co.: 251-266.
Retso, J. (1991). "The Domestication of the Camel and the Establishment of the Frankincense Road from South Arabia." Orientalia Suecana 40: 187-219.
Rostovtzeff, M. (1932). Caravan Cities. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Saud al-Saud, A. (1996). "The Domestication of Camels and Inland Trading Routes in Arabia." ATLAL 14: 129-136.
Schumacher, G., Ed. (1886). Across the Jordan, Being an Exploration and Survey of Part of Hauran and Jaulan. London.
Shaer, M. M., B. (2003). "Cultural Interaction through the Ages: The Ninth International Conference on the History and Archaeology of Jordan." Near Eastern Archaeology 66(4): 198-199.
Sidebotham, S. E. (1986). "Ports of the Red Sea and the Arabia-India Trade [1]." Münstersche Beiträge zur antiken Handelsgeschichte 5(2): 16-36.
Sidebotham, S. E. (1989). Ports of the Red Sea and the Arabia-India Trade [2]. L’Arabie préislamique et son environment historique et culturel. Actes due colloque de Strasbourg 24-27 juin 1987. Leiden: 195-223.
Sidebotham, S. E. (1989). Ports of the Red Sea and the Arabia-India Trade [3]. The Eastern Frontier of the Roman Empire. Proceedings of a colloquium held at Ankara in September 1988. Oxford: 485-509.
Sidebotham, S. E., et al. (1989). "Fieldwork on the Red Sea Coast: The 1987 Season." JARCE 26.
Sidebotham, S. E. (1991). Ports of the Red Sea and the Arabia-India Trade [4]. Rome and India. The ancient sea trade. Madison, WI: 12-38.
Stephen, J. L. (1996). Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia Petraea, and the Holy Land (Reprint). London, Dover Publications.
Wellsted, J. R. (1838). Travels in Arabia. London.
Wilkinson, J. (1981). Egeria's Travels to the Holy Land. Warminster/Jerusalem.
Wright, T. (1948). Early Travels in Palestine. London.

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12 October 2007

Other Routes: 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing

Other Routes: 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing (Paperback)
by Tabish Khair (Editor), Justin D. Edwards (Editor), Martin Leer (Editor)

Product details
• Paperback: 421 pages
• Publisher: Indiana University Press (2 Dec 2005)
• Language English
• ISBN-10: 0253218217
• ISBN-13: 978-0253218216

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Kailukari (Tawalisi) = Klaung Garai = Phan Rang-Thap Cham

H-Net list for Asian History and Culture
October 10, 2007
From: Geoff Wade

"The Princess Urduja cited in the query by Erwin S. Fernandez is mentioned in only one historical source -an account written by or ascribed to Ibn Battuta. In his "Travels," he makes mention of a polity he reportedly visited during the 1340-1350s on his way from Mul-Java (Java) to Zaitun (Quanzhou) and which he names as Tawalisi. Urduja was a princess of this polity. An English translation of this portion of the text can be found at pp. 876-77 in H.A.R. Gibb, The Travels of Ibn Battuta A.D. 1325-1354, Translated with revisions and notes from the Arabic text edited by C. Defrémery and B.R. Sanguinetti, completed with annotations by C.F. Beckingham, (London, The Hakluyt Society, 1994, Vol. IV). Yule, in his Cathay and the Way Thither, also provides a translation and notes (Vol. 2, pp. 473-77, 520-22)

This place named Tawalisi was the only major stop on Ibn Battuta's voyage from Java to China. It has never been formally identified, but given the known routes travelled by Arab/Persian ships to Guangzhou and later to Quanzhou, an identification of somewhere on what is today the Vietnamese coast or the island of Hainan has attracted most support. Champa, which was a major polity and port in that area, and of long-standing importance as a stop on the Islamic trade route to China, is most likely. This is supported by the geography, the mention of elephants in this place, and Yamamoto Tatsuro's equation of Kailukari, the name of the largest city in Tawalisi (according to Ibn Battuta), with the Cham name Klaung Garai. (See Yamamoto Tatsuro, "On Tawalisi as described by Ibn Battuta" in Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko, VIII, Tokyo, 1936, p. 117.) Po Klaung Garai is the name of a Cham temple complex located at Phanrang in what is today Ninh Thuan Province [Phan Rang-Thap Cham, VN, Lat 11.5667 Long 108.9833 - tmc]. It comprises three towers dating to about 1300. It thus fits the chronology of Ibn Battuta quite well. [...]"

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